place new administrative cadres.
In part because experienced, specialized personnel for fertility control programs are very scarce but largely because physicians have long thought of birth, like illness and death, as their province, and the public has agreed with them, physicians and other medically trained personnel should be given education and training in population problems as well as methods of fertility control. Their enthusiastic concurrence in fertility control programs is essential in the early stages.
Public information and education are also basic elements of population-influencing policies, whether the concern is for fertility, mortality, or migration. Education and motivation of parents to realize their options, rights, and duties to their own family and to the community must be an integral part of fertility control programs. Specialists in adult and health education and in public communications through newspapers, radio, television, voluntary associations, community leaders, and other means are needed to develop, carry out, and evaluate these tasks.
Multilateral and Bilateral Assistance
Governments can learn from each other's experience in this new field, and they can be stimulated to action by confrontation with effective policies of other countries. The United Nations and its specialized agencies, especially the World Health Organization and UNESCO, can be immensely helpful in this process of intergovernmental learning.
Developed countries can play a major role through bilateral technical assistance in helping to carry out population policies that a developing country would like to establish but which call for greater material, technical, and human resources than are available in the country.
Role of Nongovernmental Organizations
Private agencies dealing with health, family planning, migration, and urbanization problems should be encouraged to continue even after government enters these fields. The private agencies should be looked to for innovation, experiment, and approaches not feasible for governments, rather than for duplication of government services.
Stages of Implementation for Fertility Control Policies
Just as other government policies and programs should be subject to annual review and modification in the light of changing conditions, fertility control policies also need to be kept under scrutiny and frequently modified. In most less developed countries, the first stages of policy will depend on a